Thanks to the constitutional courts’ judgement in case 162/2014, the prohibition of heterologous artificial insemination imposed by the law 40/2004 on the Medically Assisted Procreation (MAP) has been declared illegitimate.

Therefore, also in Italy, couples facing sterility or irreversible infertility problems can undergo artificial insemination by donor.



DONOR INTRA-UTERINE INSEMINATION is the MAP technique that foresees the use of assisted reproduction techniques employing gametes (oocytes and/or sperms) donated by a voluntary donor.

  • We talk about ovodonation when oocytes are donated while the spermatocytes are of the partner.
  • We talk about sperm donation when sperms are donated while the oocytes are of the partner.



Heterologous fertilization with sperm donation can be performed both through first level techniques, as in intrauterine insemination, or through II and III level techniques, such as IVF (In vitro Fertilization).

Heterologous fertilization with ovodonation, or with both ovodonation and sperm donation together, can be performed through II and III level techniques such as IVF (In vitro Fertilization).



Genera centres have established some physician-scientific and professional collaborations with other foreign leading centres in this field, with the objective to apply and execute the most advanced medical techniques to ensure a correct diagnosis and therapy for sterility.

All of our partners, following multiannual experiences of cryopreservation, will perform the freezing of the donated oocytes through vitrification. To today, this is the most effective technique and has been adopted by our centres since 2008. We obtained excellent results in terms of survival (90%) and embryonic development. The outcome resulted to be similar to that obtained with fresh oocytes, as published by our group on the prestigious magazine Human Reproduction (check probability of success to insert link or Rienzi et al.; 2010; Ubaldi et al.; 2011; Rienzi et al.; 2017).

This, together with a team of professionals operating using the most advanced technologies in our laboratories, it countersigns our excellence in the treatment of couple infertility.



The major problem that all our Centers are facing today is the retrieval of both male and female gametes. 10 years of prohibitions imposed by law 40 (2004/2014) have caused Italy to have few donors of reproductive cells. Therefore, to today, the gametes employed for the heterologous assisted procreation techniques originate mainly from banks of other European countries.



Heterologous artificial insemination is legal in our Country only for couples with a different sex, either married or partners carrying an infertility diagnosis. Hence, neither couples of the same sex nor single women have the possibility to make use of donations.



  • The donors’ screening

All of the donors must undergo infectious and genetic examinations to maximise the protection of the receivers under D.lgs. 191/07 and of the Dir. 17/2006 all 3, with the modalities provided for medical protocols adopted and described in the European Directives (n.2004/23/CE, 2006/17/CE and 2006/86/CE).

  • Protection of data and privacy.

All of the data, including genetic information, are made anonymous in such way that neither the donors nor the receivers are recognizable in respect of the anonymity and privacy (legislative Decree n. 191/2007).

  • Physical resemblance between parents and child

The donors are selected only after the identification of specific subjective requisites and phenotypic characteristics. This process will guarantee as far as possible the compatibility of the principal phenotypic characteristics of the donor with those of the receiver (colour of the skin, eyes and hair, blood group), in the respect of the criterions and the conditions of quality and safety as stated by the European Guidelines (n.2004/23/CE, 2006/17/CE and 2006/86/CE).

  • Maximum number of donations

The gametes (oocytes and sperms) of the same donor cannot determine more than 10 births. Such limit can be exclusively derogated in cases where the couple that has already had a child intends to have another from the same donor (State Regions conference 4 September 2014 ns.162).

  • The donors’ anonymity

The contribution of the donor is entirely genetic. From a legal point of view, the legal parent is the one who has expressed the wish to undergo the technique. The donor of gametes doesn’t acquire any parental juridical relationship with the born one and does not have the right to impose anything against him/her nor to be holder of obligations (D.lgs n.191/2007).



The decision to undergo heterologous fertilization treatment is complex and requires a deep elaboration of the implicated psychological factors.

Genera centres offer to couples the possibility to benefit from a psychological path with the objective to overcome the many doubts that have developed primarily in couples and secondarily in the newborns.

Among the major preoccupations, the acceptance of a child with a genetic patrimony not entirely at the expense of the two parents will emerge. Any possible fantasies on the donor and doubts on whether to communicate or not to the child of its origins.

These themes are also handled in the book “An unexpected trip” written by the psychologists of the Centre and that is offered to the couples as a guide and assistance in the steps that will follow.



Sperm Donation

The cost of the entire IVF procedure (with donation of seed) is of 5.500,00* Euro. 


The cost of the entire IVF procedure (with donation of oocyte) is of 6.000,00* Euro. 


– wide spectrum Reprogene genetic tests to be carried out before the start of the treatment.

– the prenatal examinations according to the normative in force (D.M: 10 September 1998).

– the amount related to the anaesthetists’ fees where applicable (Euro 200,00).

– in case of seed donation, the drugs for the ovarian stimulation of the female partner.

– the drugs for the endometrial preparation where necessary.